In 1992, five communities (Abitibiwinni, Eagle Village, Kitigan Zibi, Lac Simon and Long Point) formed the core foundation of the Council, with the desire to provide consolidated advisory and technical services that the communities individually could not undertake. They also joined together to tackle political issues that affected the Nation.
Kitcisakik joined in 1999, and in November of 2000 the First Nation of Wahgoshig in Eastern Ontario became part of the political sector of the Tribal Council.
The Council has established two key priorities: the protection and advancement of the human rights of indigenous peoples, particularly those of the Algonquin Nation, and to provide support to the member communities in human resources management, policy, communications and construction.
In order to receive funding, the AAANTC needed to be incorporated as a non-profit organization. This necessitated the adoption of corporate bylaws that needed approval by Industry Canada. The initial Board of Directors was composed of the Political Council (the Member Chiefs and elected representatives). Eventually the disadvantages of this structure became apparent. As the Board of Directors of a non-profit organization, the Political Council had to spend a lot of their meeting time dealing with administrative issues, which cut the time that they had to deal with the important political issues. Secondly, as the political constitution was wrapped up with the corporate bylaws, giving Industry Canada the authority to reject any constitutional changes adopted by the members.
In 2007 the members in assembly agreed to separate the administration of services from the constitution and political structure. The technical and advisory services remain under Federal incorporation, and are overseen by a Board of Directors formed mainly by the Director Generals of each community. Political matters are designated to the Political Council, who is not under any form of incorporation.